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This book is different from all other books on Life Insurance by at least one of the following characteristics 1-4. 1. The treatment of life insurances at three different levels: time-capital, present value and price level. We call time-capital anyMoreThis book is different from all other books on Life Insurance by at least one of the following characteristics 1-4. 1. The treatment of life insurances at three different levels: time-capital, present value and price level. We call time-capital any distribution of a capital over time: (*) is the time-capital with amounts Cl,, ..., C at moments Tl, T, .., T resp. N 2 N For instance, let (x) be a life at instant 0 with future lifetime X. Then the whole oO oO life insurance A is the time-capital (I, X). The whole life annuity a is the x x time-capital (1,0) + (1,1) + (1,2) + ... + (I, X), where X is the integer part ofX. The present value at 0 of time-capital (*) is the random variable T1 T TN Cl V + v, + ... + CNV . (**) In particular, the present value ofA 00 and a 00 is x x 0 0 2 A = and a = 1 + v + v + ... + vX resp. x x The price (or premium) of a time-capital is the expectation of its present value. In particular, the price ofA 00 and ax 00 is x 2 A = E( ) and a = E(I + v + v + ... + vX) resp. Life Insurance Theory: Actuarial Perspectives by F. Etienne De Vylder